TAVKHELIDZE Albert Nikiforovich
(December 16, 1930 - February 27, 2010).
Academician (1990), Doctor in Physics and Mathematics (1963), Professor (1966), President of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (1986-2005).
One of the founders and the first director of the Institute for Nuclear Research, he headed the Institute until 1987. Since 1987 he was the head of the Department of Theoretical Physics.
He made a fundamental organizational contribution to the creation of the Institute, the design and development of nuclear-physical experimental complexes, the construction of the Moscow Meson Factory, the Baksan Neutrino Observatory and other scientific facilities.
He played a great role in formation of a team of scientists, engineers, and specialists; definition of the main directions of scientific research and development of the scientific program of the Institute.
Recognized in the world as a prominent scientist, he (with co-authors) derived dispersion relations for the amplitudes of photoproduction of pi mesons on nucleons, which were confirmed experimentally; proposed a three-dimensional formulation of quantum field theory and obtained the Logunov-Tavkhelidze quasipotential equations, which are widely used in calculations of energy of quantum systems, analysis of quark structure of hadrons, processes with large momentum transfer; obtained finite-energy rules of sums for the meson-nucleon scattering amplitude, a non-perturbative method widely used in quantum chromodynamics; discovered the property of global duality - one of the foundations of the string model of hadrons; established the possibility of fermion mass appearance due to spontaneous symmetry breaking in a two-dimensional model of quantum field theory.
He put forward a hypothesis of a new fundamental quantum number - color, colorless hadronic states, quasi-free state of quarks in hadrons, which found experimental confirmation; became one of the authors of Matveev - Muradyan - Tavkhelidze quark counting rules; derived relativistic-covariant equations for coupled particle systems in quantum field theory; proposed the principle of self-similarity in high-energy physics, developed a unified approach to the description of deep inelastic processes; solved the problem of baryonic matter instability under ultrahigh density conditions.
As an outstanding organizer of science, he made a great contribution to the development of international scientific relations of the Institute with scientific centers in other countries. He brought up a world-known school of theoretical physicists.
His name was included in the INR RAS Book of Honor in 2000.
Awards: Lenin Prize (1988), State Prize (1998), State Prize (1973), Government Prize (2000), Order of the October Revolution (1978), Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1971), Order of Friendship (1999), Medal "For Distinguished Labor" (1970), Academician N.N. Bogolyubov Prize (2001-2002). Honorary Citizen of Troitsk (2001). Honorary Badge for the 30th Anniversary of Troitsk (2007).